Masters in Molecular Biology Philippines

Last Updated on March 29, 2023 by

Are you an international student? Are you interested in learning more about Masters In Molecular Genetics? Do you get overwhelmed by the amount of conflicting information you see online? If so, you need not search further because you will find the answer to that question in the article below.

To get more information on Masters in Molecular Biology Philippines, masters in molecular biology in usa, masters programs in molecular biology, what jobs can i get with a masters in molecular biology, masters molecular biology salary, is a masters in molecular biology worth it & what can i do with a masters in molecular biology. You can also find up-to-date, related articles on Collegelearners.

what can i do with a masters in molecular biology

When it comes to the branches of Biology, there are scores of them. However, the one that deals with the study of the interactions taking place within and outside the cell at the molecular level, is called Molecular Biology. Studying the finest details of cells, molecular synthesis, as well as its modification, mechanism, and interactions is a meticulous and herculean task. Therefore, in order to develop a strong understanding, pursuing MSc Molecular Biology is an excellent option!

What is MSc in Molecular Biology?

Masters in Molecular Biology is generally a two-year postgraduate degree that sheds light on various facets of Biology, Medicine, as well as Biotechnology. Apart from stem cell therapy, you will also gain an insight into the genome-editing techniques, DNA formation, mechanism of RNA and proteins, etc. Furthermore, you will also have to complete a dissertation project at the end of your course.

Credits: Queens University Belfast

Syllabus and Subjects

Bifurcated into 4 semesters, you will study core as well as electives modules during the journey of the course. Though the course curriculum can vary from one university to another, tabulated below are some of the subjects that are taught in the Masters in Molecular Biology program.  

Semester Syllabus  & subjects
1Biostatistics;
Fundamentals of Molecular Biology;
Computer Applications;
Biomolecules and Enzymology;
Practicals
2Applied Molecular Biology;
Basics of Immunology;
Metabolism of Carbohydrates and Lipids;
Practical
3Metabolism of Proteins and Nucleic Acids; Physical Biochemistry and Biochemical Techniques;
Genome Editing Technologies;
Elective;
Practical
4Clinical Biochemistry;
Elective;
Dissertation/Research Project

List of Electives

As discussed, you will have to choose a few electives in order to complete your degree course. Enlisted are some of the popular electives you can study under the masters Molecular Biology program. 

  • Molecular Genetics
  • Genetic Engineering
  • Protein Crystallography
  • Bioinformatics
  • Gene Therapy
  • Human Genetics
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Cell Biology
  • Marine Microbiology
  • RNA interference (RNAi) and Drug Delivery.
  • Cancer Cell Studies

10 Best Colleges for Molecular Biology in India

Indian institutes also offer fine courses in molecular biology. If you don’t want to study abroad, here are some of the colleges for MSc in molecular biology in India you should consider:

  1. Dravidian University
  2. Bhavan’s New Science College
  3. Indian Agricultural Research Institute
  4. Mahatma Gandhi Mission Institute of Health Sciences
  5. Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute
  6. Manipal University
  7. Banglore University
  8. Mysore University
  9. Mahatma Gandhi Mission Institute of Health Sciences
  10. Kannur University

Top 10 Universities for Masters in Molecular Biology Abroad

There is a wide range of academic institutes across the world that offer this course. Some of them, which are famous for their state of the art educational infrastructure, robust curriculum, diverse research labs, and placement programs have been listed below:

  1. University of Salford 
  2. Queen’s University Belfast
  3. Michigan State Univerity
  4. University of Edinburgh
  5. Coventry University
  6. Cornell University 
  7. University of Idaho 
  8. Pace university
  9. McGill University 
  10. The University of Queensland
Credits: Staffordshire University

Top 20 Universities for Masters in Molecular Biology

There are many countries that are slightly in-demand than others when it comes to molecular biology courses. Some of the countries are USA, Canada, UK, Germany. Check out the list of universities you should aim for:

MSc in Molecular Biology in UK

  1. University of Leeds
  2. University of Glasgow
  3. University of Manchester
  4. University of Nottingham
  5. University of Aberdeen

MSc in Molecular Biology in Canada

  1. Western University
  2. York University
  3. University of British Columbia
  4. University of Manitoba
  5. Ryerson University

Mastes in Molecular biology in USA

  1. Harvard University
  2. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  3. Stanford University
  4. University of California
  5. Johns Hopkins University

MSc in Molecular Biology in Germany

  1. University of Munich
  2. Technical University of Munich
  3. Heidelberg University
  4. Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
  5. University of Bonn

MSc in Molecular Biology Distance Learning

Distance learning allows students to study from anywhere in the world without the worry of relocation. Students can study in top-ranked institutes with best-in-class facilities without emptying their pockets. Here are some of the best Masters in Molecular Biology distance learning universities you should consider:

Scope of Bioinformatics

How to Become a Bioethicist?

Who can Pursue Masters in Molecular Biology?

To apply for this course, you need to qualify for some essential criteria, which, however, can vary from one university to another. Listed below are some common entry requisites: 

  • You must have a bachelor’s degree like BSc Genetics/Microbiology/Biology, etc with biology as the main subject.
  • When it comes to Indian universities/colleges, they conduct their own examination which is essential to qualify. 
  • However, If you are aiming to go for higher studies abroad, the universities require English proficiency test scores of IELTS/TOEFL/PTE, etc. Further, many academic institutions might also ask you to provide GRE scores. You will also have to submit a Statement of Purpose (SOP) and Letters of Recommendation (LORs) along with other essential documents. 

MSc in Molecular Biology Jobs & Salary

From agriculture and aquaculture to forensics, medical and pharmaceutical industries, there are umpteen employment opportunities you can explore upon grafting with an MSc in Molecular Biology degree. Some of the prominent Msc in molecular biology jobs & salary is given bel

Scope

The branch of biology is focused on the molecular structure and everything related to it. Its scope is also connected with biotechnology human genetics and genetic engineering. It is a postgraduate course and students can also go for further research or doctorate level studies. There are immense job opportunities as well such as conservationists, ecologists, botanists, in the field of medical laboratories, research centers, institutes, etc. It is a career with numerous career opportunities.

The Department of Molecular Genetics is administered from the Medical Sciences Building and has nearly 100 faculty members whose labs are located within the Medical Science Building, the Best Institute, the Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, the FitzGerald Building, the Hospital for Sick Children, Mount Sinai Hospital, the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, and Princess Margaret Hospital.

can you get a masters in biology online

The Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy programs in Molecular Genetics offer research training in a broad range of genetic systems from bacteria and viruses to humans. Research projects include DNA repair, recombination and segregation, transcription, RNA splicing and catalysis, regulation of gene expression, signal transduction, interactions of host cells with bacteria and viruses, developmental genetics of simple organisms (worms and fruit flies) as well as complex organisms (mice), molecular neurobiology, molecular immunology, cancer biology and virology, structural biology, and human genetics and gene therapy.

DomesticInternational
Application payment deadlineMSc, PhD:1-May-2022MSc, PhD:1-May-2022
Supporting documents deadlineMSc, PhD:1-May-2022MSc, PhD:1-May-2022
Minimum admission averageMSc:B+, both cumulatively and in the final yearPhD:A-MSc:B+, both cumulatively and in the final yearPhD:A-
Direct entry option from bachelor’s to PhD?PhD:YesPhD:Yes
Is a supervisor identified before or after admission?MSc, PhD:AfterMSc:BeforePhD:After
If a supervisor is identified after admission (as per question above), is admission conditional upon securing a supervisor?MSc, PhD:Yes
Is a supervisor assigned by the graduate unit or secured by the applicant?MSc, PhD:ApplicantMSc, PhD:Applicant
Program length (full-time only)MSc:5 sessionsPhD:4 years; 5 years direct-entryMSc:5 sessionsPhD:4 years; 5 years direct-entry

Master of Science

Program Description

The MSc program offers research training in a broad range of genetic systems from bacteria and viruses to humans. Research projects include DNA repair, recombination and segregation, transcription, RNA splicing and catalysis, regulation of gene expression, signal transduction, interactions of host cells with bacteria and viruses, developmental genetics of simple organisms (worms and fruit flies) as well as complex organisms (mice), molecular neurobiology, molecular immunology, cancer biology and virology, structural biology, and human genetics and gene therapy.

Minimum Admission Requirements

  • Applicants are admitted under the General Regulations of the School of Graduate Studies. Applicants must also satisfy the Department of Molecular Genetics’ additional admission requirements stated below.
  • Normally, a BSc or MD degree or equivalent with excellent academic credentials in molecular biology, genetics, microbiology, and/or biochemistry. Applicants trained in other quantitative sciences (math, physics, chemistry, computer science, engineering, etc.) are also strongly encouraged to apply.

Program Requirements

  • Coursework. Successful completion of 1.5 full-course equivalents (FCEs) as follows:
    • MMG1001H (0.5 FCE)
    • MMG1003H (0.25 FCE)
    • MMG1004H (0.25 FCE)
    • MMG1113H (0.25 FCE)
    • MMG1114H (0.25 FCE).
  • Students must also attend each of the following graduate seminars two times:
    • MMG1111H (0.0 FCE; Credit/No Credit)
    • MMG1112H (0.0 FCE; Credit/No Credit).
  • thesis on a research project.
  • Defence of the thesis at an oral examination.
  • Residency. Students are required to spend 12 months in full-time attendance.

Program Length

6 sessions full-time (typical registration sequence: F/W/S/F/W/S)

Time Limit

3 years

Doctor of Philosophy

Program Description

The PhD program offers research training in a broad range of genetic systems from bacteria and viruses to humans. Research projects include DNA repair, recombination and segregation, transcription, RNA splicing and catalysis, regulation of gene expression, signal transduction, interactions of host cells with bacteria and viruses, developmental genetics of simple organisms (worms and fruit flies) as well as complex organisms (mice), molecular neurobiology, molecular immunology, cancer biology and virology, structural biology, and human genetics and gene therapy.

Applicants may enter the PhD program via one of three routes: 1) following completion of an MSc degree; 2) transfer from the University of Toronto MSc program; or 3) direct entry following completion of a BSc, MD, or equivalent degree.

PhD Program

Minimum Admission Requirements

  • Applicants are admitted under the General Regulations of the School of Graduate Studies. Applicants must also satisfy the Department of Molecular Genetics’ additional admission requirements stated below.
  • An MSc degree in Molecular Genetics, or equivalent, from the University of Toronto or another recognized university. As a condition of admission, applicants who have completed their MSc outside of the Department of Molecular Genetics may be required to complete additional course requirements.
  • Normally, an MSc degree or equivalent with wet or dry lab experience related to molecular biology, genetics, microbiology, and/or biochemistry is required. Applicants trained in other quantitative sciences (math, physics, chemistry, computer science, engineering, etc.) are also strongly encouraged to apply.
  • Attainment of minimum admission standards does not guarantee acceptance into the PhD program.

Program Requirements

  • Coursework. Students must successfully complete a total of 1.0 full-course equivalent (FCEs) as follows:
    • MMG1115H (0.5 FCE)
    • Two modular courses (0.25 FCE each), which must be taken after successfully completing the qualifying examination prior to the Summer session of Year 4. If a program extension is granted beyond Year 4, students have until the Summer session of Year 5 to complete.
  • Students must also attend each of the following graduate seminars four times:
    • MMG1111H (0.0 FCE; Credit/No Credit)
    • MMG1112H (0.0 FCE; Credit/No Credit).
  • thesis on a research project.
  • Successful completion of a qualification examination in Year 2. The qualifying exam consists of the submission of a written proposal and an oral examination. If a student is unsuccessful at the first attempt at the qualifying exam, there are three possible outcomes:
    • The student may retake the oral exam within four to eight weeks without revision of the written proposal; or
    • The student may submit a revised written proposal and retake the oral exam within four to eight weeks; or
    • The student may withdraw from the program after consultation with the Graduate Coordinator. In cases where the student does not have an MSc in Molecular Genetics, the Exam Committee may recommend the student reclassify into the MSc program.
  • Residency. Students who enter the doctoral program after completing a master’s program must spend a minimum of two sessions in full-time attendance.

Program Length

4 years

Time Limit

6 years

PhD Program (Transfer)

Transfer Requirements

  • Transfer applicants must be enrolled in the Department of Molecular Genetics MSc program.
  • Students must have successfully completed the following:
    • MMG1001H (0.5 FCE)
    • MMG1003H (0.25 FCE)
    • MMG1004H (0.25 FCE)
    • MMG1113H (0.25 FCE)
    • MMG1114H (0.25 FCE).
  • Students must be enrolled in MMG1111H and MMG1112H in order to qualify to transfer to the PhD program.
  • Transfer applicants must successfully complete a reclassification transfer exam within the first 24 months of registration in the MSc program.

Program Requirements

  • Coursework. Students must successfully complete a total of 1.0 full-course equivalent (FCE) as follows:
    • MMG1115H (0.5 FCE)
    • Two modular courses (0.25 FCE each), which must be taken after successfully completing the transfer examination and prior to the Summer session of Year 5.
  • Students must also attend any remaining graduate seminar sessions not completed prior to transferring. Students must attend each graduate seminar four times:
    • MMG1111H (0.0 FCE, Credit/No Credit)
    • MMG1112H (0.0 FCE, Credit/No Credit).
  • thesis on a research project.
  • Successful completion of a transfer examination in Year 2. The transfer exam consists of the submission of a written proposal and an oral examination. If a student is unsuccessful at the first attempt at the transfer exam, there are four possible outcomes:
    • The student may retake the oral exam within four to eight weeks without revision of the written proposal; or
    • The student may submit a revised written proposal and retake the oral exam within four to eight weeks; or
    • The student is asked to complete and defend an MSc thesis; or
    • The student may withdraw from the program after consultation with the Graduate Coordinator.
  • Residency. Students who enter the doctoral program after completing a master’s program must spend a minimum of two sessions in full-time attendance.

Program Length

5 years

Time Limit

7 years

PhD Program (Direct-Entry)

Minimum Admission Requirements

  • Applicants are admitted under the General Regulations of the School of Graduate Studies. Applicants must also satisfy the Department of Molecular Genetics’ additional admission requirements stated below.
  • Students with a BSc degree, an MD degree, or equivalent may be accepted directly into the PhD program.
  • Normally, a BSc degree or equivalent with academic credentials and wet or dry lab experience related to molecular biology, genetics, microbiology, and/or biochemistry is required. Applicants trained in other quantitative sciences (math, physics, chemistry, computer science, engineering, etc.) are also strongly encouraged to apply.
  • Attainment of minimum admission standards does not guarantee acceptance into the PhD program.

Program Requirements

  • Coursework. Students must successfully complete a total of 2.5 full-course equivalents (FCEs) as follows:
    • MMG1001H (0.5 FCE)
    • MMG1003H (0.25 FCE)
    • MMG1004H (0.25 FCE)
    • MMG1113H (0.25 FCE)
    • MMG1114H (0.25 FCE)
    • MMG1115H (0.5 FCE)
    • Two modular courses (0.25 FCE each), which must be taken after successfully completing the qualifying examination and prior to the Summer session of Year 5.
  • Students must also attend each of the following graduate seminars four times:
    • MMG1111H (0.0 FCE; Credit/No Credit)
    • MMG1112H (0.0 FCE; Credit/No Credit)
  • thesis on a research project.
  • Successful completion of a qualification examination in Year 2. The qualifying exam consists of the submission of a written proposal and an oral examination. If a student is unsuccessful at the first attempt at the qualifying exam, there are four possible outcomes:
    • The student may retake the oral exam within four to eight weeks without revision of the written proposal; or
    • The student may submit a revised written proposal and retake the oral exam within four to eight weeks; or
    • The student may choose to reclassify in the MSc program; or
    • The student may withdraw from the program after consultation with the Graduate Coordinator.
  • Residency. Students who enter the doctoral program after completing a master’s program must spend a minimum of two sessions in full-time attendance.

Program Length

5 years

Time Limit

7 years

Master of Science in Medical and Molecular Genetics

The Master of Science in Medical and Molecular Genetics is an independent degree and not required as a prerequisite for the Medical and Molecular Genetics doctoral degree. Candidates planning to apply for the MS degree program must have a bachelor’s degree with at least a 3.0 GPA. Common undergraduate degrees include biology, biochemistry and life sciences. Courses in genetics, biochemistry and biology are recommended. The GRE general exam is required; a subject test is not needed.

Pursue a MS in Genetics

Begin work on a Master’s degree in Medical and Molecular Genetics to prepare for a career in laboratory research or education. All applications are due by January 15.

Program Requirements

Students must complete a minimum of 30 credit hours of approved course work and must maintain a minimum of 3.0 GPA and a B or better in all coursework. In addition to the 30 credits hours of approved course work, students must prepare and defend a Master’s thesis; complete first authorship on a refereed publication and approval of the department; or complete an additional six hours of non-research course work.

Curriculum

A minimum of 30 credit hours of approved courses, including no more than seven hours of research. At least 20 hours must be taken in Medical Genetics or approved equivalents, with grades of B or better, including at least four of the following five courses: Basic Human Genetics (Q580), Clinical Genetics (Q610), Molecular and Biochemical Genetics (Q612), Human Cytogenetics (Q620) and Population Genetics (Q630).

Students who have not had an undergraduate biochemistry course are encouraged to take B500 Introductory Biochemistry before taking Q612 Molecular and Biochemical Genetics. Up to eight graduate hours of non-research credit with grades of A or B may be transferred with the approval of the Advisory Committee and the Graduate School.

Application Process

In addition to completing the electronic application, supplemental information (GRE/TOEFL scores, transcript(s) and letters of recommendation (if the referee prefers not to complete an online recommendation) should be mailed separately to: Education Program Manager, Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, 975 W. Walnut Street, IB-130, Indianapolis, IN 46202-5251.

Microbiology, Immunology, & Molecular Genetics | UCLA Graduate Programs

Particularly strong applicants have explored the profession of Medical and Molecular Genetics through extracurricular experiences—such as working part-time in a research lab or taking research oriented courses. Decisions for admission are based on review of application materials and the outcome of interviews, extended to a portion of candidates. Offers for acceptance are given during the spring.

PhD Students Scaling Back to MS Degree

If a student starts in the IBMG PhD program but wishes to obtain a terminal MS degree, the following courses from that program will count toward the MS degree in Medical Genetics.

Year One

  • Year OneG715 Biomed I (Biochemical Basis of Biological Processes): 3 credits
    G716 Biomed II (Molecular Biology and Genetics): 3 credits
    G717 Biomed III (Cellular Basis of Systems Biology): 3 credits
    G655 Research Communications Seminar: 1 credit
    G724-727 Open admission Medical Genetics electives: 1 credit

What can I do with an undergraduate degree in Molecular Biology and Genetics?

  • Biotechnologist
  • Embryologist
  • Forensic DNA Analyst
  • Molecular Genetics Technologist
  • Molecular Laboratory Technologist
  • Plant Geneticist
  • Research Associate
  • Research Technologist

NB: Jobs within this section may require professional designations (ie. MSc, MD, PhD, etc.)

What can I do with further education?

  • Animal Geneticist
  • Biological System Specialist
  • Cancer Researcher
  • Clinical Geneticist
  • Cytogeneticist
  • Genetic Counsellor
  • Human Geneticist
  • Researcher
  • Statistical Geneticist

Industries that hire Molecular Biology and Genetics graduates:

  • Biotechnology
  • Business/Consulting
  • Education
  • Government
  • Health Care
  • Testing Laboratories

Companies that have posted on Recruit Guelph for this major:

  • Agronomic Assistant – Syngenta Canada Inc.
  • Associate Production Supervisor– Cargill Limited
  • Food Safety & Quality Assurance Specialist – T&T Supermarket Inc.
  • Food Scientist – Aryzta
  • Operations Coordinator – Canadian Seed Growers’ Association
  • R& D Plant Pathologist – Agri-Neo

Clinical molecular geneticist: job description

Clinical molecular geneticists research and investigate diseases including familial cancers, cystic fibrosis, muscular dystrophy and Alzheimer’s.

Clinical molecular geneticists analyse patients’ DNA specimens via a variety of techniques such as fragment analysis, DNA sequencing and mutation detection. Most of their work is laboratory-based. Other responsibilities include:

  • using a variety of tests and diagnostic procedures to determine genotypes (the genetic make-up of individuals) and/or identify genetic diseases
  • supervising and training junior laboratory staff and medical technical officers
  • recording and analysing quality control data
  • keeping up to date with developments in the profession
  • attending conferences and relevant training sessions
  • liaising with colleagues and other healthcare professionals
  • carrying out research and development
  • analysing and interpreting DNA test results
  • writing reports that outline test results for use by GPs, paediatricians and consultants

Typical employers of clinical molecular geneticists

  • The NHS
  • Universities
  • Government agencies
  • Pharmaceutical, biotechnology, food, energy, water, horticultural and environmental companies

There is intense competition for the limited number of training vacancies that arise each year. Job vacancies are advertised online, in national newspapers, local hospital or health authority job boards and scientific journals such as New ScientistNature Genetics and Nature.

  • The recruitment process is likely to involve a technical interview. Read our article on technical interviews to find out what these involve and how you can tackle them.
  • If you’d like to find out what your salary might look like, take a look at our article on how much you might earn in science on our TARGETcareers website.

Qualifications and training required

You will need a 2.1 in a medical or life science degree such as biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, biotechnology, physiology, medicine or biomedical science. It is essential to have studied genetics on your degree and a relevant postgraduate qualification can be beneficial. Read our article on scientific postgraduate study to explore your different options.

Research work, hospital laboratory placements and experience gained using relevant scientific and analytical techniques can be particularly helpful.

To work within the NHS, you will need to complete the scientist training programme (STP) after your degree. The application process for the STP typically starts in January.

Scotland has separate training schemes, which also involve a three year STP or an equivalent programme.

After completing the STP, you can then apply for a certificate of attainment from the Academy of Healthcare Science. This is will enable you to apply for registration with the Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC).

In order to practice as a clinical scientist in the UK, you must be registered with the HCPC. You will automatically be eligible to apply for registration if you have completed a HCPC approved course, but you will need to pay a fee for the HCPC to process your application, plus a registration fee, which is reduced by 50% if you graduated from an approved course within the last two years.

Key skills for clinical molecular geneticists

  • Problem solving
  • Communication skills
  • An analytical and inquisitive mind
  • Teamworking skills
  • Research skills
  • Good IT skills

Jobs With a Master’s in Molecular Genetics

Molecular Geneticists

Molecular geneticists identify specific genes associated with certain diseases, disorders and functions. They also try to determine if environmental factors play a role in the development of congenital diseases. The median annual salary of molecular geneticists is $65,080, according to the National Human Genome Research Institute. While a bachelor’s degree is the minimum educational requirement, a master’s degree is advantageous, and the NHGRI states that employment opportunities are best for those with a Ph.D. or M.D. in molecular biology.

Genetic Counselors

Genetic disorders can cause physical, intellectual, emotional or behavior problems, in addition to causing such conditions as autism. Genetic counselors identify genetic disorders and help clients, such as parents, to understand and manage genetic conditions in their children. Genetic counselors may specialize in prenatal counseling, cancer counseling or genetics counseling. While many genetics counselors have a master’s degree in genetic counseling, SUNY Fredonia reports that this is also a good career choice for those with a master’s in molecular genetics. According to a National Society of Genetic Counselors 2010 Executive Survey, these professionals earned a median annual salary of $63,700.

Molecular Genetics Technologists

Molecular genetics technologists work in laboratory environments where they analyze DNA or RNA to establish a link between genetics and an individual’s health. Through molecular genetics testing, they can uncover congenital diseases and assess the familial risk of cancer. They can also detect neurological disorders and diagnose oncology and prenatal disorders and risks. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reports the salary for molecular genetics technologists was $58,640 in May 2012. In addition, Mayo Clinic states that students may either obtain a bachelor’s degree in diagnostic genetics or a master’s degree in molecular pathology before being certified in molecular biology.

Molecular Genetics Managers

In addition to research and counseling positions, some students may parlay their degree into a management role. Molecular genetics managers oversee the work of molecular genetics scientists, technologists and other lab personnel. They determine the technical goals of research and develop plans, in addition to managing budgets and establishing administrative procedures and standards. These managers also monitor the progress of projects and review research, testing and reports. Molecular genetics managers may have either a bachelor’s or a master’s degree. According to May 2012 BLS salary data, they earned an annual mean wage of $130,400.

2016 Salary Information For Natural Sciences Managers

Natural sciences managers earned a median annual salary of $119,850 in 2016, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. On the low end, natural sciences managers earned a 25th percentile salary of $92,070, meaning 75 percent earned more than this amount. The 75th percentile salary is $160,990, meaning 25 percent earn more. In 2016, 56,700 people were employed in the U.S. as natural sciences managers.

Job Outlook for Biotech and Pharmaceutical Careers

There are over 901 biotechnology medicines and vaccines in development at America’s biotechnology-derived pharmaceutical research companies, according to a 2011 report by the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America. This includes 353 medicines for cancer, 187 drugs for infectious diseases, 59 medicines for autoimmune diseases, and 59 drugs to treat cardiovascular diseases. Advancements in cellular and molecular biology have already resulted in drugs that either prevent or treat a variety of diseases, including heart attacks, multiple sclerosis, leukemia and hepatitis. As a result, the job outlook for biotechnology and pharmaceutical careers is quite promising.

Biomedical Engineers

The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts demand for biomedical engineers to grow by 62 percent through 2020, which more than quadruples the 14.3 percent job growth rate projected for other U.S. occupations. Among other things, biomedical engineers design new drugs, drug delivery systems and computer simulations to test new drug therapies. The educational requirement for this job is a bachelor’s degree in biomedical engineering. According to May 2012 BLS salary data, biomedical engineers earned an annual mean wage of $91,200.

Biochemists And Biophysicists

Employment of biochemists and biophysicists is projected to increase by 31 percent through 2020. Their involvement in biotechnology research leads to the development of new medicines that fight genetic disorders and such diseases as cancer. Biochemists and biophysicists generally need a Ph.D. in biochemistry to work in independent research and development jobs. However, a bachelor’s or master’s degree is usually sufficient for some entry-level biochemistry and biophysics jobs. In May 2012, biochemists and biophysicists earned an annual mean wage of $89,470, reports the BLS.

Biological Technicians

Through 2020, biological technician jobs are anticipated to increase by 14 percent. Biological technicians work with biomedical engineers, biochemists, biophysicists and other biotechnology scientists. They set up laboratory instruments and equipment, such as test tubes, microscopes and scales, and they also gather and prepare samples of food, blood or bacteria cultures for lab analysis. The educational requirement for biological technicians is a bachelor’s degree in biology or a related field. The BLS listed the annual mean wage of biological technicians as $42,600 in May 2012.

Pharmaceutical Sales Representatives

The BLS projects a 16 percent increase in demand for pharmaceutical sales reps. These professionals identify and contact potential clients such as pharmacists, physicians and other medical personnel to sell them pharmaceutical supplies. They also answer questions regarding product use, prices, studies, side effects and other statistics. The educational requirement is generally a bachelor’s degree, preferably in biology, chemistry or a related subject. The BLS classifies pharmaceutical sales reps as technical and scientific products sales representatives, and listed their May 2012 annual mean wage as $85,690

Psychologists vs. Sociologists

Psychology and sociology are similar careers in that both deal with people. Psychologists may deal with people individually or in groups, while sociologists are interested in society as a whole. Either may specialize in a particular area of her discipline, as there is infinite variety in people, their thoughts and their activities. One area of difference is salaries; sociologists earned an average of $79,460 a year in 2011, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, while psychologists earned $73,090 to $124,160 a year, depending on the specialty.

Education

Careers in psychology or sociology start with lots of time learning. Both careers need a minimum of a master’s degree. Some psychologists — such as clinical, counseling and research psychologists — are required to have a doctorate, and many sociologists also pursue advanced degrees. Sociology master’s degree programs include traditional programs, which prepare a student for a Ph.D. program, and applied, clinical or professional programs that teach students to perform sociological research in a professional setting. In psychology, a Psy.D. — doctorate in psychology — is a clinical degree. School psychologists usually must have a degree in school psychology, rather than general psychology.

Specialties

Psychologists and sociologists usually specialize in a particular area of their professions. For sociologists, the specialties include health, crime, education, racial relations, ethnic issues, families, population, gender, poverty and aging. They may also teach or take a right-hand turn into a related field, such as policy analysis or statistical analysis. Clinical psychologists help people with mental illness; they may specialize further into how psychological factors affect people’s health and illnesses or into neuropsychology — the relationship between brain and behavior. Psychologists may also specialize in developmental issues for people of all ages; in forensics, the interface between law and psychology; or in education-related issues, such as behavioral problems and student performance.

Research

Sociologists are primarily researchers — they are the folks behind all those questions in telephone surveys. They study human cultures, organizations and the ways in which institutions affect groups of people. They spend considerable time collecting and analyzing data; creating reports, presentations and articles from their findings; and advising governments or institutions involved in social change. Psychologists may perform research, but they also do a lot of hands-on tasks, such as clinical care and counseling or psychological testing. They may work with people who are mentally ill or help them make behavior changes — a possible solution for hubby always leaving the lid off the toothpaste.

Job Outlook

There are not nearly as many sociologists in the United States as there are psychologists — about 4,000 were employed in 2010, according to the BLS. Most worked in research and development or in schools and universities. The profession is expected to grow about 18 percent between 2010 and 20200, slightly faster than the U.S. average, according to the BLS. There were about 174,000 psychologists employed in the United States in 2010, according to the BLS, in workplace settings such as private practice, hospitals, clinics and mental health facilities. The profession is expected to grow between 2010 and 2020, especially for industrial-organizational psychologists, whose job prospects may grow at more than double the average rate for all jobs, according to the BLS.

Genetics

Job options

Jobs directly related to your degree include:

  • Academic researcher
  • Clinical research associate
  • Clinical scientist, genomics
  • Clinical scientist, immunology
  • Genetic counsellor
  • Pharmacologist
  • Plant breeder/geneticist
  • Research scientist (life sciences)
  • Research scientist (medical)

Jobs where your degree would be useful include:

  • Biotechnologist
  • Epidemiologist
  • Forensic scientist
  • Medical sales representative
  • Physician associate
  • Scientific laboratory technician
  • Science writer

Typical employers

Many careers relating to genetics are based in the health services, so employers tend to be hospitals, pharmaceutical companies and universities.

However, opportunities within food and drink companies, the health and beauty care industry, and research and consultancy companies are also available.

UK Research and Innovation (UKRI) is comprised of seven Research Councils, Innovate UK and Research England. The Research Councils have laboratories that recruit scientists, but you’ll usually need a higher degree.

You may want to consider opportunities in industries related to biological sciences, such as biotechnology, biomedical research, agricultural and horticultural, conservation and environmental assessment. It’s also possible to use your skills in fields like teaching, business, finance and retail.

Skills for your CV

Studying genetics provides you with specialist subject knowledge, as well as skills in scientific protocol, biological research and laboratory practice, which is essential if you intend to pursue a career in a genetics-related job.

Employers are also interested in the broader skills you acquire, such as:

  • recording, analysis and interpretation of masses of scientific data
  • logical thinking, numeracy and computing skills
  • awareness of current issues and ethical debates
  • communication skills including report writing and making presentations
  • time management
  • problem solving
  • self-reliance and initiative
  • business awareness
  • teamwork and strong interpersonal skills.

What do genetics graduates do?

Graduates use the transferable skills gained from their degree to enter a variety of professions, with just a fifth (21%) becoming science professionals. This includes biochemists, medical scientists, laboratory technicians, and natural and social science professionals.

DestinationPercentage
Employed25.5
Further study59
Working and studying6.3
Unemployed5.3
Other3.9

Graduate destinations for genetics

Type of workPercentage
Science professionals17
Business, HR and finance15.1
Technicians and other professionals12.5
Education professionals7
Other48.3